Hey Electrified Miata team, here's the latest update in the never ending quest to go faster. Thank goodness for Teamwork! For those of you following along, you know that one of this weeks more exciting sub-projects is to have our first "chat" with the inverter. Guess what, things didn’t go go nearly as well as I'd hoped. Do you know the feeling of disappointment when a critical step of the project just doesn't work and you don't know why? That's what I was experiencing shortly after
the first power up of the inverter. Please read on for the details of we accomplished this week.
We continued work on four sub-projects. One, the Battery Management System (BMS), two, battery pack assembly, three, physical interface to our Leaf motors, and last, the software to control the Leaf inverter/motor. There were some unexpected interactions between the software control and battery pack assembly. Teamwork helped to move this project forward.
Bruce has set up a slack room so we have place to converse about problems, resources, and progress. Thank you Bruce. Using our slack room, Brian and Joe gave me an education on pros and cons of source code control systems for us to use. We'll be using 'git' and likely hosting on gitlabs.
Joe, currently working on the BMS, showed us some amazing progress. His progress demonstrates so clearly why having a team is a huge benefit in terms of project length. Joe received the processor boards and assembled a prototype
From left to right, usb to serial adapter, processor board with various BMS components, and programmer. He then gave us a demonstration of a Python program communicating with the board and polling for status. This was a big step and after Joe explained it to us, I was so grateful for having him work on the BMS. He has the knowledge, experience, and necessary parts to make this happen. If I were attempting this, I would have had to buy more parts like programmers and serial port adapters, learned how to use them and then learned yet another programming environment using LED's as a debugging tool. That's a lot of work and demonstrates Joe's level of expertise.
Ed jumped in and made 2 polymer clay molds of the Leaf motor shafts. Polymer clays, once baked get extremely hard and are sand-able, giving us the ability to make measurements. Thanks to my Aunt Irene for allowing us to use the scraps of her art supplies to further this project. It should be mentioned that Ed also supplies us with libations for our team meetings. ;)
I worked on getting the inverter software ready to test so we can start to see how much of what we picked up from the salvage yard was actually salvageable. I thought the software was running well enough for a first conversation with the inverter, according to the this document. I had tested the message rates and loads on the processor and everything was looking good. I needed one more tiny feature just in case things didn't work quite the way I thought. I wanted to add logging, so we can see to the microsecond when the inverter replies to us and with what data. Logging needs to be remote because Raspberry Pi's use SD cards for their 'disk space'. This type of memory has a limited number of write cycles and a logging function will burn them out. It should be real easy to log over the wireless network onto my one of my desktops, or in the future a laptop. I set up the logging message and ran smack into a version issue between my desktop and the raspberry Pi. The Pi's software was newer than my desktop and the timestamp that I send from the Pi is a different version. I thought to myself, this would be good time to upgrade my desktop. While I'm still not sure exactly what happened, I ended up with two versions of python on my desktop and neither one would run Pandas which contained the Timestamp's this project uses. My wife probably wondered what all the yelling was about in the electronics lab. I ended up needing to upgrade Linux to a newer version to get that mess and version problem straightened out.
The Linux upgrade had the un-intended side effect of leaving me with some spare time while Linux was installing, so I started assembling our remaining battery packs. I managed to get two more battery packs assembled.
Now we have all four needed for the go-kart. :) The next stage will be the soldering and attaching the bus bars. My own soldering iron (about 50 years old) was struggling on the negative terminal of the cells so I was able to borrow a variable temperature Weller soldering iron from yet another person, Winfred Washington. Thanks Winfred! Using my un-verified and un-calibrated temperature probe that came with my meter, both soldering irons showed approximately 650 degrees F. at the tip with the probe held on the tip for five seconds. ThenI searched the internet and found that probe is only good up to 500 degrees F, so it's likely I didn’t have the right tool to measure the difference. :( I did solder with Winfred's iron and didn't
notice too much difference in soldering.
After all this, we performed the first test with the team and it was anti-climatic. Nothing happened, except my software died a ignoble death on an exception, grrrr!
The sweat started forming and my ears heated up. I was simultaneously embarrassed and grateful. The team jumped right in and we spent our remaining time debugging trying to find our why the Pi CAN end was unhappy. Joe had both a scope and logic analyzer from which we learned that the inverter looks like it sent a message, yay! The test also revealed some design flaws for the software. Anything that goes wrong in the CAN conversation program also removes control of the power relays. This is not good when controlling enough power that can literally melt wrenches. I was very grateful this happened early on with a small battery. The design problem will be fixed next week and we'll continue debugging to find out what went wrong. Stay tuned to see what it takes to fix this!
Thanks so much for reading. It's not too late to join us for the fun - contact me (using this link if you don't have my number)
Hey Electrified Miata team, here's the latest update in the never ending quest to go faster. The band is back together and that makes me absurdly happy. What band you ask? The band of people, that helped make the Pantera, the Electric go-Kart, the Electric B2600 and now the Electrified Miata. There is something very special about a team meeting and working to construct something fun. I missed having this great group of people together, working on a project. Thank you very much to all that helped once again, on that quest to make dreams come true!
Just like in a musical band, everyone in this band plays a different instrument. Bruce picks up the Leaf charger. Our goal with this instrument is to understand it better, so we can make it play our tunes.[what tunes?] A working charger will be required to play in our band, so some dissection is required to get a visual identification on the various components and how they are connected. Here's a 30 second time lapse from Bruce of him of taking the bottom section apart.
Whew, that was a fair amount of delicate work. Thanks Bruce!
Ed, comes in next and picks up the wire loom. He has the required tools for this
job in his pocket, a nice knife. We start to unwrap it and remove all the tie-wraps and electrical tape. This tune requires patience as we don't want to damage the wires underneath. Old electrical tape on the hands is not that fun. Thanks Ed! Of all that cabling (right), here is all that is required (left) between the inverter and motor
Joe enters, and starts on another vital component, battery pack assembly. One down side to having our own form factors is 'some assembly required' Joe gets to play with these pieces to assemble them in a very specific pattern.
He does this until we have a 10 x 20 grid assembled. I had one side assembled (a nice break between thoughts in software) and Joe completed the other side. Then Joe inserted 200 pre-checked batteries in one side and carefully finagles the other side to fit. A small block and hammer to keep the beat and snug the top down finishes off our second pack. Thanks Joe! Joe is also the one who exclaimed "Bill's putting the band back together" giving me the idea for the
theme of this weeks blog.
Brian stopped by later to check on our progress and we chatted about the future. Specifically we talked about the user interfaces and motor couplings. We agreed that using a cheap touch pad/tablet should work as long as it runs (or can be made to run) a recent version of Chrome. Anyone have a used tablet that runs (on can be made to run Chrome)? Donations accepted. As long as the touch display works while plugged in, that should be good enough. We also talked about the motor shaft coupling. Brian suggested we 3d print a test spline section to verify dimensions once we have a cad drawing. Thanks Brian!
I had my own part to play in this band. Early in the week I had finished checking 1000 batteries. From all of them, I discovered 14 cells and were significantly different than the rest. One was quite different and I set that one aside for my first soldering experiments. I added two cells and then charged all 16 of them, 4 cells at a time and assembled them into our 'test' pack.
This will be used to power our raspberry Pi's and possibly
other lower voltage items. We'll also do our first pack wiring on this one to find the
best techniques. I had come up with these little jumpers but Ed thought it would be better just to lay the wire across the batteries. I agree and that will be my task for next week to assemble this test pack, minus the BMS portion which Joe is prototyping. I was also playing with the software portion of the motor controller. Here's a video of me testing the power up and power down sequences.
I did the happy dance, and had to show my wife once I got the output pin numbers correct in the program. The software should be ready next week to attempt our first "chat" with the inverter.
Again, if anyone has a used tablet device they are willing to part with, please let me know. Thanks so much for reading. It's not too late to join us in the fun - contact me (using this link if you don't have my number)
Hey Electrified Miata team, here's the latest update in the never ending quest to
go faster. First, I'd like to acknowledge the amazing number of friends and family that have already helped get this project off the ground. Second, I'd like to share a bit of the details that go into going faster. Number one on the acknowledgment list is my wife, Teresa, who listens to my dreams, helps me edit these blogs, listens to me work through my problems, and is there to celebrate the many small victories along the way. The friends and family who have contributed this week are in no particular order: Sawyer Bitner, Doug Kimber, Steven Quick, Bruce Bitner, Joe Kroesche, Ed Bailen. Also, thanks to my TKD family who always bring me to the present moment instead of dreaming about the future.
Going faster starts with assembling battery packs, reassembling the old go-kart, constructing the Battery Management System (BMS), developing CAN software, and separating the wire looms on the Leaf Hardware. A group of us met last week and we popped the top and bottom off a Leaf charger, discussed the various tasks to make progress towards the electric Miata. Instead of tasks getting completed, two MORE tasks were added to the list! Most of the other tasks have partial progress.
Read more to learn about the journey. Warning, long and detailed descriptions below.
In reference to last weeks tasks, here is the progress.
1. Assemble two battery packs in a 20S20P configuration.
One thousand batteries have arrived. Thank you very much to the 18650BatteryStore. They know how to treat their customers right. The day I was going to order my first set of batteries, Dec 23d, a Deal of the Day was announced. Suddenly, I'm doing research on LG batteries, as for a short time, they were on sale. I find the batteries with the right specifications, and whip out the credit card (Merry Christmas to me). I get a reply email that day (although I didn't read it till the 26th) saying they had sold out of that particular battery but would it be okay to send me a better battery for the same price. Heck yeah, doing the happy dance! I got upgraded by 300 extra amp/hours. The batteries arrived very quickly (Dec 30th) via fedEx. Thanks to Bruce Bitner, I now know that each pack of 100 batteries weighs about 11 pounds. Now I need to test them and assemble them. Here is a picture of the pre-assembly state.
After measuring the battery holders on the go-kart, it seems that a 20S10P cell is all I have room for on a single layer. That means I'll have 4 physical packs, combining two each make 20S20P packs. Here is one of the packs partially assembled.
I also started measuring each battery for state of charge, a mind numbing task. As I will be connecting them to directly to each other (parallel), they had better have the same relative state of charge. So far I've gotten 204 cells measured, with 200 cells measuring 3.597 +/- 5 millivolts and 4 cells measuring 3.581. The difference isn't that great, but I'll put them aside for a test/practice battery assembly.
2. The go-kart needs to be re-assembled and the Alltrax 7245 controller needs re-programmed to 72 volts.
The go-kart is out of the shed and the motor out of the attic. Thanks to Sawyer for the heavy lifting.
3. The Battery Management System BMS will need some assembly.
Joe Kroesche (of B2600 fame ) has volunteered to prototype one of the boards so we can see how it operates. In fact, he's already ordered some parts to make sure everything works before we need to assemble about 100 of these little boards. Thank you Joe! This is a great reminder that it's so much easier to do things as a team. Both Joe and Doug Kimber (a friend from Bell Labs and my circle track racing days) are familiar with the process of building Surface Mount circuit boards. I'm learning so much about types of files and assembly procedures.
4. Separate the wire looms on the Leaf hardware to have just the inverter and the required motor resolver interface.
No progress yet.
5. Develop hardware and software needed to communicate via CAN with the motor inverter.
My 'A' plan was to use the beagle-bones.
The beagle-bones have two embedded CAN controllers, so they would be ideal. I still have to have a external chip to both get the right signal levels and isolate the BeagleBones from external events (things that would harm the BeagleBones). I found a tiny board from Waveshare that had the chip I needed on it. Unfortunately, I couldn't make this setup work. I did hook the CAN_L to the CAN_H (which is wrong) and it felt like one of the waveshare boards got kind of warm. After that I ordered some replacements boards, but still couldn't get it to work. Not sure if the software was too old, or what the problem was. I had a backup plan in mind, so on to plan B, which involved using raspberry Pi's
Since the Pi didn't have a CAN controller embedded, the little add on board was a little more complicated and cost more at 18.00 per board. Of course the OS on my Pi was badly out of date, so my first task was to get the latest software loaded. Thanks to the internet, updating isn't hard. So much faster than the days of modems.. After getting the software up to date, I found I had no jumpers to connect the Pi to the CAN boards. I was headed to Fry's and asked Bruce if he wanted to come. It turns out he had some jumpers, thanks Bruce, and I finally started making progress. I could get the CAN link up, but still no communications. I found a grounding problem and everything started to work. After that, (which took most of the week) I finally got to the software portion of the project. I found code on github (thank you internet) which allowed me to use Python to communicate with the CAN bus. Whew! I thought that would be much easier than it was. And then two more tasks got added to the list.. And yes, they should have been on the list in the first place.
6. A new task, Charge the batteries.
Lithium Ion batteries need a special charging procedure, else they are likely to blow up. It won't be long before we have battery packs assembled. It will definitely be longer before we have full battery monitoring capability but will need to charge the batteries to get the full power on the go-kart. Chargers can be expensive, so I"m hoping to use the charger that came with the Leaf motors. Bruce, Ed, Joe and I took apart the case from the charger which was much harder than it looked. That gray gasket goo Nissan used was really sticky
It will require some reverse engineering on our part. It is possible according to this article.
7. A new task, Obtain a coupler that fits the the Leaf motor shaft.
Soon after the battery packs are assembled, I'll be trying the spin the motor. Right after that, I'll want to put a motor on the go-kart to do a thorough test of its capabilities. We'll need a way to put a gear on the end of that motor shaft. It's not a stock part from Grainger, and the guys at EvWest.com didn't have any suggestions as to where to find one. I may have a guy here in Texas willing to make them (for a price). To do that, I need to make a CAD drawing of what I want, which is a new tool to me. Luckily, my friend Doug Kimber turned me on to ONSHAPE, a free cad tool. Hope the learning curve isn't too sharp. I also talked with Steven Quick as he works with a machine shop. Need to get that CAD drawing done. Anyone out there know how to do this?
My head is still spinning with all the details and bouncing between all these mini projects. Overall, this past week has been a lot of fun and truly enjoyable. Again, a huge thanks to friends and family that make this all possible. I'm paraphrasing a quote from the movie Ford Vs Ferria where Carroll Shelby is giving a speech. "When a person knows exactly what he/she wants to do, they'll never work a day in their life". While it's not 100% fun (checking 1000 batteries is rather boring), it is mostly play. Thanks so much for reading. It's not too late to join us in the fun - contact me (using this link if you don't have my number)
Hey Electrified Miata (the eMiata name was already taken) team, here's where we are at.
Let me first paint the vision for the Electrified Miata. I want to build electrified miatas in various performance levels, all the way from pedestrian to face ripping. To that end, I purchased 2.5 Leaf motors. One Leaf motor weighs 126lbs and its inverter weighs 36lbs. Here's Kurtis and his EV grin helping weigh the beasts
I've also ordered 1000 LG MH1 18650 3200mAh 10A batteries.
Before we can run (or face rip) we must walk and before we walk we crawl (pedestrian). So, our first pedestrian task is to see if those Leaf motors run or not. An intermediate step to the Leaf's spinning is re-purposing our old electric go-kart as a test prototype.
Very lucky for us, someone has already figured out the magic required to make a Leaf motor go. Even spinning the motor is not as easy as it looks. First we need a power source of 140Volt DC at around 10 amps. Then a 12 volt source, which I have thanks to Korey and his motor cycle upgrades. We also need to be able to send and receive Controller Area Networks (CAN) messages to the inverter. We're at the point where everyone can help on this project.
The tasks in no particular order where help, advice, and/or experience would be greatly appreciated are:
1. Assemble two battery packs in a 20S20P configuration. That is 20 cells in series, each of those comprising of 20 cells in parallel. These packs will do double duty. They will be used on our electric go-kart for battery pack and Battery Management System (BMS) stress testing. The completed packs can also be put in series to power a Leaf motor.
2. The go-kart needs to be re-assembled and the Alltrax 7245 controller needs re-programmed to 72 volts.
3. The BMS will need some assembly. I've never done SMD (Surface Mount Devices), I could use some guidance on how to assemble and where is the best place to order circuit boards.
4. Separate the wire looms on the Leaf hardware to have just the inverter and the required motor resolver interface. Below is the current situation.
There is only one motor connection needed, although the inverter needs 12 volt power, battery mains, and CAN interface connections.
5. Develop hardware and software needed to communicate via CAN with the motor inverter. I have a few BeagleBone Black's and a few raspberry Pi's computers sitting around that should be capable of that with a little bit of extra hardware. I also have some python examples of CAN code. Getting that all working should do the trick, although I don't know what it means to acknowledge a CAN message so more research will be required.
Getting the Leaf motor to turn under software control - sounds pretty easy, right? No, not really, but I've found when multiple people get together, it becomes a whole lot easier and usually quite a bit of fun. Looking forward to meeting with everyone who is interested. Leave me a message with how to contact you and I'll let you know the details of when and where. If you aren't in the ATX area you and your expertise are welcome to join us virtually.
I'm so excited. I've searched the web and found a junk yard that had four motors, not one or two - FOUR! Even better, they were selling them for $510 a piece. This is going to be great. I can't wait! I looked at typical shipping prices and they look like they are going to charge approximately $250 per motor to ship them. I looked at the map and see a 1800 mile road trip. My truck gets 17 mpg and maybe more on the highway so about $200 in gas. Another $100 on hotels and maybe $100 on food. Approximately $400 seems better than $1000 in shipping fees. My son says he can go with me! This is awesome as I don't always get to spend as much time as I'd like with him. I called the junkyard 7 days before the trip (the longest I could reserve them for and I had to wait till my son was finished with his first college semester) and reserve the motors. Everything is good and I'll pay $2138 for all four of them. Can't wait and looking forward to the trip.
A few days go by and again I called the day before I leave to verify my motors are ready for pickup. This time, I got someone else on the phone who explained that I talked to a new guy and they only had two motors that have a 90 day guarantee and one motor that is damaged. Talk about a let down... Now my math on shipping savings doesn't look as good. I asked him to send me pictures of the damaged motor. Bad news, one of the water jacket outlet/inlets is damaged. I called him back, and re-negotiated the price. We settle on $1300.00 and I decide that having a few motors is better than having no motors. Besides, I get to take a road trip with my son who just finished his first semester of college. Score!
The trip is going to be 894 miles one way. We're planning on driving all the way in one day. Pick up the motors and drive back the next day. It's going to be some long days but we plan to switch off driving and that should make it somewhat bearable. My son and I start off around 4:30 in the morning headed to Carrolton Georgia. Cousin John T, and cousin-in-law John C, Bruce, Jeff Quick, truckers, I don't know how you guys do that day after day. We saw some nutty stuff where a car cuts off a truck (the lanes merge and the truck has no-where to go) and the car is beeping like crazy at the truck who was slowly moving over. I'm amazed we don't have more accidents with all that power, mass and driver rudeness. Yikes! Enough talking, what happened when y'all got there?
We got up early the next morning (eastern time zone) and had to heat the truck up because there was this crazy stuff called frost (We live in Texas where it rarely freezes) all over my poor truck. We show up right as the junkyard opened up and were first in line. I pay the agreed upon price and the lady tells me I have to a a VIN number to have a valid warranty. Wow, I think, I wonder if she'll take the VIN number from my Ford F150? So now I probably don't have much of a guarantee. I drove back to the junkyard warehouse to pick up my motors. We had to wait because there are company trucks being loaded with parts to go to local repair business. I walked in the warehouse to look at my motors. The first thing I noticed is there is no trans-axle attached. The pictures I'd seen on the web implied the engine assembly piece included the trans-axle so I kind of expected one to be attached. My fault for not verifying. Then I found that someone had tried (or succeeded) to take the top off one of the non-damaged motors! Now I'm getting unhappy and very unsure of what I'm paying for. My son probably didn't see the frown cross my face. The lady in the warehouse was paying attention when the fork truck driver picked
up the motor. She saw my frowns and let the fork truck driver to be careful with the connectors.
We loaded the motors up and they fit nicely 3 across in the bed of the pickup. We pull out out of the loading bay and my son and I re-strap the motors for traveling. My son did a great job with little guidance from me. I'm a very proud dad to have helped raised such a useful and helpful young man.
We set off to go 894 miles back from where we came from. Home sweet home.
My son had tunes on his phone and we played 'Sweet home Alabama' as soon was we crossed the state line into Alabama. We talked about when he first learned to play guitar (that was one of the first popular songs he learned). Around three in the afternoon and not quite 1/2 way there, my son and I decided we weren't going to be truck drivers for a living. We made it back safely and postponed unloading to the next day.
Unloading was definitely interesting, to say the least. The motors have lots of wires hanging out. Some of the connectors were smashed and it's obvious that the junkyard personal tried to separate the inverter, power delivery module and the motor, but they may not have been aware of the internal connections. As always, you get what you pay for, and these motors looked "used".
Let's look at the 12V connector. On motor 1, we have the stud where the 12 volt connects. On motor 2, the stud and connector are broke off. On motor 3, we have the entire connection intact. Overall, I'd say we have about 2.5 motors plus or minus a little bit.
The good news is all motors spin freely and feel about the same indicating no physical damage to the internals.
Wow, how are we going to turn this pile of junkyard stuff into a running electric car? Hah, that's a story for another day. Stay tuned for the adventures of E-Miata Team.
It's happening again... It has been a little over a year since I sold my Pantera and I'm getting the itch. The itch to drive something really high performance. The itch to drive something that can scare you if you take it just little too far. The Pantera was a so much fun, but I've felt that electric can do even better. Thanks to Kurtis Klein, driving a Tesla P100D confirmed it! I've been around just long enough to know I need to pay attention when I get an itch. In fact, while planning for 2020, I realized that a part of me would literally die if I didn't attempt this project. The part of me that tackles big bold audacious ideas. I fear getting old and dull. So, with the blessing of my wife, Teresa, I'm gonna scratch this itch! The real question for me is how to do this project, not break my bank and to still get performance that will beat my 500 foot/points (ft/lbs), 525 HorsePower(HP) Pantera. That's one tough problem. Enough talking, let's survey the current solutions and areas that appear to be problems.
Lucky for us, the internet has so much information available that the bottleneck is how fast I can read articles or view YouTube. I've spent a fair amount of time reading the postings on Do It Yourself Electric Vehicle forums. There are two areas where a lot of problems occur:
Surveying the motor/controller landscape here shows there are several routes to choose from, but none of them very cheap or easy. First there are AC and DC motors. When pushing parts to their performance limit, all the components need to be matched in strength and it's highly desirable to me to have no wearable parts, so and AC motor is a must. Looking at manufactured solutions, there aren't too many to choose from at this point. Here in the U.S., I've seen Tesla motors, Chevy Bolt motors and Nissan Leaf motor. Both the Tesla and Bolt motors are relatively expensive at $5-10K as a package (both motor and controller). If you choose 'off the shelf' varieties, say from evwest.com , the AC (and some DC) motors are $3K for 'go-kart' type motors to $10K for the really high performance motors. That's *without* a controller/inverter to drive them! Yikes. DC motors and controllers are a little better in terms of price (and low RPM torque) but you loose regenerative braking and have brushes which wear, especially if subjected to high levels of stress. I'm not a fan of maintenance if I can avoid it.
The reader who's been paying close attention will realize I skipped the Nissan Leaf. At first glance the Leaf motors seem too weak at 80 Kilowatts( KW)/ 100 HP. However, they do have about 250 ft/lbs of torque and they are relatively CHEAP at $500-$800 each. In recent news, Tesla has been turning decent lap times on a three motor solution for the model S. If three motors are good, isn't four better? I can buy four Leaf motors for less than price of 1 Tesla motor. Not only that, but there appears to be an upgrade path for the Leaf motors, as one enterprising soul is claiming 300 HP from a Leaf motor after replacing the stock controller and inverter.
The video of him spinning the tires at will, even after moving 30 mph on front wheel drive gives every appearance of a reasonable amount of torque and horsepower. So it looks like I can get started rather cheap on the motor/controller end by going with some Leaf motors and later change the inverter section to get the HP I want if 100 HP increments prove to be insufficient. I'm sure there are cooling issues with running 300% more power than stock, but that's a problem for down the road. Choosing the Leaf motor dictates using a 375 volt battery pack or closer to 500 volts to get some more horse power! Yikes, that means I better get some class 0 electrical gloves for the garage, cause I really *hate* getting shocked, not to mention all those volts can abruptly shorten my lifespan to zero. Lets talk about batteries.
Batteries are both very expensive and time consuming to put together, and somewhat dangerous if not treated with respect. To put some perspective on it, a small 30 mile round trip, uses roughly the same energy as my house does for 24 hours. That implies that a fully charged Electric Vehicle has a lot of power, similar to a gasoline tank. Treat that power with respect. Surveying the battery landscape looks like there are several key areas where I have some flexibility for design solutions.
As anyone who has completely restored/converted a car (electric or otherwise) knows, there is *so* much to do and I could use some help. If this seems to be be of interest to you, leave me a comment on the blog. I'm in the Cedar Park/North Austin Texas area.
OK, enough talking. Let's go get some Leaf motors. Four Leaf motors reserved, road-trip with my son! Will let you know how it goes.